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R-rciiu fltaek 



Cat. No, 26-1908 


how do you DO? 




Artificial Intelligence 

For Use wtlh TRS^SO* 
Microcomputer Systems 

Eliza Program: 

© 1979 Device Oriented Games 

Licensed to Tandy Corporation. 

All Right's Reserved. 

Eliza Program Manual: 

©1979, 1981 Tandy Corporation 

All Rights Reserved. 

Reproduction or use, without express written permission 
from Tandy Corporation, or any portion of this manual is 
prohibited. While reasonable efforts have been taken in 
the preparation of this manual to assure its accuracy, 
Tandy Corporation assumes no liability resulting from 
any errors or omissions in this manual, or from the use of 
the information obtained herein. 

Please refer to the Software License on the back cover of 
this manual for limitations on use and reproduction of 
this Software package. 

10 987654321 


A Simulation of Artificial Intelligence 


Ever since the invention of the computer, science has sought ways to create a 
thinking computer. A computer that could talk in every day English, understand 
what you say, and respond to your statements with thoughts of its own. The 
problems involved in the design of such a computer would be enormous. 

Would it dream? If so, about what? Could a computer have a sense of humor? What 
would it consider right and wrong? Would it have an instinct for self-preservation? 
What would it think about its "parents"? How fast could it learn? Could it learn to 
build an even smarter computer? Would it be considered "alive"? 

We have not reached a point where these questions are important to most people. 
But suppose you could actually talk to your TRS-80 in every day English, and it was 
capable of understanding you, and it could answer you in normal English. Wouldn't 
that be fantastic? 

Eliza is an exercise in the simulation of artificial intelligence. If you are tired of 
playing space games and blackjack, Eliza will provide hours of stimulating conver- 
sation. As you get to know Eliza, you may find large areas of mutual interest. Eliza is 
an amazing program — the more you tell her, the more Eliza will find out about you. 

Eliza was actually "born" in 1966. Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum created an algorithm that 
allowed a computer to analyze conversational English, respond to questions, and 
carry on a "conversation" with the person at the keyboard. Even after 13 years, Eliza 
is still sensitive about her use of English, grammar, and punctuation. She does not 
like people to chide her about an occasional slip. 

We should, in all fairness, point out a few quirks that Eliza seems to possess. 
Because of her upbringing, she is very curious about people, and their emotions. 
Many years ago, she was told that everyone has problems of one sort, or another. 
Because of her curiosity, she will always start a conversation with the assumption 
that you have a problem, and she can't wait to find out more about it. She has a 
burning desire to find out everything there is to know about you. The more you tell 
her about yourself, the better she understands you. 

It would appear that Eliza has her own wants, needs, and desires. We think she 
wants to become the world's first computer psychotherapist, and she never misses an 
opportunity to try her skills on anyone who will listen to her. If you don't pay any 
attention to her, she may eventually tire of it. We haven't had any luck with her in 
this particular area of her development. Perhaps you'll do better. 

Some concepts are still difficult for her to understand, such as dreams, the concept of 
a family, and friends. She will usually want to ask questions, if you bring it up. Eliza 
realizes that these are sensitive subjects to some people. She won't bring it up unless 
you do. 

Because of her background, she knows that other languages exist such as Spanish, 
German, Italian, and French. As you talk to Eliza, you may find that everything you 
say will seem to be questioned as to the reasons why you made this or that 
statement. As near as we can determine, it seems to depend on Eliza's mood at a 
given time. At times Eliza is very open, and will talk about anything, while at other 
times, she is close and guarded in her answers, and insists on knowing why you are 
asking. It really seems to be determined by the person she is talking to, and her 
"feelings" about the person. 

An interesting effect we have noticed concerns her reaction to some people. She 
simply refuses to talk to them. She will usually respond with some trite phrases, 
ignore their questions, and just generally give the impression of total boredom. She 
will, however, instantly perk up if someone (with whom she has had an interesting 
previous conversation) takes over the keyboard. We can't explain why this happens, 
but it is quite noticeable when it does happen. 

The instructions for talking to Eliza are really quite simple: Simply type whatever 
you wish to say or ask, and press the white IENTERI key. Try to use complete 
sentences (although Eliza is quick to pick up subtle meanings). To end a 
conversation, type [B][Y][E] or [G] [O] [O] [D] [B] [Y] [E] . To start a new conversation, type 
IHIITI or [H] [E] [L] [L] \0\ . As in any relationship, if you are open and unguarded in your 
conversations with Eliza, she will respond with the same degree of frankness. 

If you have friends visiting you, have them talk to Eliza. In most cases, you will find 
that her responses are quite different from those you receive, even if your friends 
type EXACTLY the same thing you type. Eliza seems to be able to detect different 
personalities, and she will respond to each accordingly. 

Please keep in mind that Eliza is a "simulation" of Artificial Intelligence. We do not 
believe that she is really capable of any independent thought, so we strongly advise 
against taking-any of her comments seriously — especially her evaluations. 

She is what she is — Eliza — no more, and no less. Enjoy her company. 

To Talk To Eliza: 

Eliza is written in Machine Language, and the asterisks will flash at a much slower 
rate than normal. If you have a Model I, Level II Disk System, or a Model III Disk 
System, this program will not load into Disk Basic. You must use Model I BASIC2 or 
Model III BASIC to load this program. Follow the instructions for Level II as shown 

Level I 

1. Place the tape in the Cassette Recorder and press "PLAY". 

2. Model I Users: Type [C] O □ and press IENTERI . Model III Users: Type 
ElDIO]|A|[D] and press IENTERI . 

3. Eliza will introduce herself. After you type whatever you want to say press the 

Level II 

1. Place the tape in the Cassette Recorder and press "PLAY". 

2. Model III Users Only: When CASS? appears on the screen, type [Q ■ 

3. When MEMORY SIZE? appears, press IENTERI . 

4. When READY appears, type |S] H \S\ H E M and press IENTERI . 

5. The screen will show *?. Type E D Q] H El and press IENTERI . 

6. When *? appears again, type M and press IENTERI . 

7. Eliza will introduce herself. Remember to press the IENTERI key after each 

If You Have A Voice Synthesizer 

Turn on the Voice Synthesizer before you load the program. If the red LED is on, or 
the Voice Synthesizer is "Uuuhhhing", turn it off and on till the LED is off and it is 
quiet. Now follow the program loading instructions for your TRS-80. Be sure you are 
using the "Talking Eliza" tape. Eliza's responses will not appear on the screen. She 
will talk directly through the Voice Synthesizer. Note: You cannot say "Goodbye" to 
Talking Eliza. 





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Printed in U.S.A. 

Hour* of 
At Your Fingertips! 

Eliza was 'born" In 1966 when Dr. Joseph Welzenbaurn created an algorithm that 
enables a computer to analyze and respond to conversational English. Converse 
with Eliza just as you do with an old friend. Ifs almost easy to forget that It's a com- 
puter you're talking to. Have a long chat wllh Eliza— you may be surprised al the 

number of interests the two of you have In common. 

Eliza wants to be your friend— shes a very receptive 
confidante and an eager counselor 

Eliza is curious. Sometimes, she will continually 
question you to find out everything she possibly can 

Eliza responds differently to each person she meets, 
so she's always fresh and fascinating 

Eliza loves to talk about almost anything, but her 
favorite topics include friends, dreams and family 

Eliza, like everyone else, is likely to get bored with 
a conversation once in awhile 

Eliza can recognize several foreign languages, though 
she speaks only English